The Techno insight page is part of Shannon Aero's web site because we recognize Orville & Wilbur Wright. Until the invention of the gasoline engine, a wide variety of propulsion methods were tested such as electricity compressed air, steam, coal gas and benzine. These engines were not suited to heavier-than-air flying machines. Wright possessed the insight to design flight in a way that their intellectual property rights are protected by the law. Over the centuries, thousands of of flying contraptions, in four general categories, were conceived and some were tested.
1. Fixed-Wing aircraft include gliders and power-driven aircraft.2. Lighter-than-air craft include balloons and dirigibles.3. Helicopters or craft capable of rising vertically through use of rotating wings.4. Ornithopters, or wing-flapping craft.
Techno Insight wants to add insight to the next aeronautical revolution. Our analysis of more that 5,000 research papers shows that as the authors examined the technology adoption curve, they generally have ignored the impact of the maturity curve and the interaction of the two curves. Technologies developed by aerospace industry today, are now pointed at solving the problem of eliminating the temperature effect caused by emissions of GHG (CO2e) acidic pollution from jet engines.
Langley & the Wright Brothers designed flying machines in 1903. The one invention defined manned flight as we know it.......... Who won & Why?
By the end of the 18th century flying was limited. Inventors were building prototype flying contraptions by the 1840s. Kites, gliders, balloons, airships, were all used by the military.
By the late 1800s, inventors built powered, heavier-than-air flying machines capable of getting off the ground with lift, but they failed the flight control test, rendering them unstable in flight and unsafe to fly.
Up to the start of the 20th century the challenge was control in flight. Wilbur and Orville solved that issue.
The Wright's scientific experimentation with flight began in 1899. By 1900 they invented wing warping,a unique way to control take-off, maneuvering in flight (stable flight when changing the direction of flight) and landing safely, using wires to twist (warp) the wings of the aircraft.
Warping was universally recognized as an "innovative mechanism for controlling an aircraft in flight." The pilot today uses a hand control to turn left and right in mid-air, in a safe manner.
In the 1880/90s, some noted flight designers were Octave Chanute, who inspired the Wright Brothers, Otto Lillienthal, & Samuel Langley. George Cayley first flew a glider in 1849. But gliders lacked power for liftoff and controls for safe flight. US War dept. gave Langley $50,000 in 1898 to test his theories in practice, but his design failed on all counts.
The Brother's wing warping method was key, making controlled, manned, powered flight in a heavier-than-air flying machine a reality. The Wrights were proud of their invention and deserved all the legal intellectual property protections.
The warping mechanism described in their 1906 patent, revolutionized the science of aeronautics. In all aircraft designed since 1903, directional control is mostly achieved through changes in the “lateral margins” of the aircraft wings, using "ailerons."
The Wright Flyer won the race for key measurable reasons: (1) the Brothers invested heavily in the bicycle, the technology advancement of the day, to where it was commercialized in the last decades of the 18th century. (2) They used a wind test cell to test their designs. (3) They carried out 1,000 test flights. (4) The engine that powered the Wright Flyer was made of aluminum, a material invented in the late 1880s. (5) They used/reused components to build the Wright Flier II.A striking indicator of innovation is that the Wright Brothers calculated that the Flyer would need an engine power of about 10,000 hp to achieve a maximum speed of around 300 mph. That such a speed was achieved with powers around a tenth of that hp value is a tribute not only to engine designers but also to the successful application of new ideas in aerodynamics. John Ackroyd
The Langley Aerodrome was a powered, manned, apparatus built to be a flying machine; designed by Smithsonian Institution Secretary Samuel Langley from 1898 to 1903. It failed on flight testing.
Future Tech Insight will cover production engineering, a topic that has received little attention, despite its importance, in the procurement of aircraft on a large scale. Mass production remains an advanced and complex engineering enterprise. Before WWI, aircraft were purchased after testing of a prototype, which had been offered for evaluation after being designed and built by the manufacturer as a private venture. Few aircraft had been built in any quantity previously, and firms were small and without experience in production engineering. During the war, After the war began and large orders were being placed output could increase only slowly. Several important actions taken at that time to speed up aircraft production were to reappear in WW2. The first co-operative arrangement forAfter the war began and large orders were being placed output could increase only slowly. Several important actions taken at that time to speed up aircraft production were to reappear in WW2. These include the first co-operative arrangement for engineering companies organised in 1915, in which parts were produced by a number of sub-contractors for final assembly at the parent firm. By use of dispersed manufacture a much greater output became possible and the practice was widely adopted. Many aero-engines were obtained from France throughout WW1, but they were also built under licence, together with others of British design. The expertise of firms in the motor industry was quickly brought to bear in this field, benefiting from their acquaintance with the machine tools and techniques of mass production already known at that time, an arrangement also adopted in the approach to WWII. tGovernments operated a scheme of National Factory construction, with public funding, to increase capacity in other areas of arms production. When by 1917 provision of aircraft and engines had become too great an enterprise for the Army to manage, this was taken over by government departments. In these and their own premises, auto and other engineering firms were contracted to build airframes to the designs of aircraft companies. Output was supplemented by a number of Aircraft Repair Depots, where damaged aircraft were restored to use, incorporating spare parts and components from stores and others recovered from airframes that were beyond repair. The planning of aircraft production as developed 70 years ago and will be redesigned for the manufacture of net-zero aircraft. Before the war, aircraft for military use were purchased after testing of a prototype used for evaluation after being designed and built by the manufacturer as a private venture. Few aircraft had been built in any quantity prior to WWI, and manufacturers were small and without experience in production engineering. After the war began and large orders were being placed output could increase only slowly. Several important actions taken at that time to speed up aircraft production were to reappear in WW2. These include the first co-operative arrangement for A thread of continuity took between the end of WWI, when aircraft were first mass produced, and the restoration of mass production that became necessary again during the 1930s. The insight will cover WW1, the 1920s, the 1930s and the preparation for war, and WWII focused focuses on aircraft output in the United States. The focus is on the increase in production of aircraft from the spring of 1938 to a peak of in May 1944. UK Production of aircraft increased from 150 a month in the spring of 1938 to a peak of 2,700 in May 1944. This was achieved by careful planning, which introduced the nascent science of work study, the extensive use of sub-contracting and shadow factories, and attention to support activities such as machine tools, supply of materials, tools and dies and inspectionaragraph. Mass production required the development of procedures for the planning of production programmes within the relevant OEM and Government departments, and the growing coordination of that with the corresponding evolution of processes in the manufacturing industry. Though repeatedly threatened by world events, this collaboration produced a robust system of production that at its peak in the UK, in 1944 employed nearly two million people and delivered more than 2,500 aircraft a month to the military. Journal of Aeronautical History, Volume 8, by Professor Brian Brinkworth.
Lilienthal was a "Glider" pilot.
Liliental made well-documented, repeated, successful flights using gliders. Newspapers & magazines published photographs of Lilienthal gliding, favourably influencing public and scientific opinion about the possibility of flying becoming practical. On 9 August 1896, his glider stalled in flight. The glider fell about 15 m (50 ft). He died the next day from his injuries.
In 1898, the US War Department promised Samuel Langley $50,000 to carry out flying experiments over a period of five years. But the US army purchased its first aircraft, Airplane No. 1, a Wright Flyer, in August 1909 for $25,000, after a series of tests at Fort Myer, Va. The contract included training for two Flyers from the Army's aviation arm, part of the Signal Corps. Technical support was provided by nine mechanics. The maintaining budget was $150. Congress appropriated $125,000 for aeronautics - the first such appropriation ever. The Signal Corp used the money to buy five aircraft, three Wrights and two Curtiss. The Wright's machine used two pilots side by side at dual controls. Curtiss used one pilot at the controls. A new problem immediately arose because the pilot training requirements for each manufacturer were different.